# Metabunk

## Demonstrating How Refraction Helps You See Over The Horizon

Feb
06
by Mick West at 2:46 PM
(1,446 Views / 3 Likes)

If there were no atmosphere, and somehow the Earth still had oceans, then the curvature of those oceans would be readily apparent, with a pin-sharp horizon cutting off distant objects with mathematical precision. You'd be able to zoom in clearly on ships vanishing over the horizon, and calculate the radius of the earth with great precision.

But back in the real world, we have an atmosphere. That atmosphere is generally denser as it gets lower down, and this makes the light bend down a bit, which lets you see beyond the mathematically calculated horizon.

This is normally illustrated with a side view, with the camera on one side and the target object on the other, and a greatly exaggerated curve of the Earth, like this:

This is where the explanation starts to get lost on people. This abstract side view is...

## Debunked: Boiling Water Freezing When You Throw it in the Air at -40 Degrees?

Jan
30
(63,593 Views / 4 Likes)

Whenever there's really cold weather you see lots of accounts of people throwing hot water into the air, which creates a dramatic cloud. People often describe this as being so cold that boiling water freezes instantly. This description is inaccurate.

The water is not "freezing in mid air" as these videos so often describe. It's actually doing the opposite - it's evaporating into water vapor. This then very quickly condenses in the cold air as a cloud of visible "steam" (micro-droplets of water) which then very quickly freezes into a dust cloud of tiny ice crystals, because they are so small. The actual boiling water does not freeze instantly, and in most of the videos you can see and hear it splattering on the ground (or sometimes, with screams, on the person throwing.

What is going on is the surface area is vastly...

## Why "Chemtrail" Tests on the Ground Find Metals That Don't Occur Naturally

Jan
28
by Mick West at 8:09 AM
(13,109 Views / 3 Likes)

Believers in the "chemtrail" theory (the theory that the trails behind high-flying aircraft secretly contain chemicals intended to alter the climate or weather) often point to chemical analyses done on soil, air or water. Typically these tests are done for three metals: Aluminum, Barium, and Strontium (the fallacious "geoengineering signature"). Since these elements are all naturally found in the Earth's crust, they usually find some of each. Experts in geochemistry recently analyzed a typical set of these results, and determined they did not come from a secret spraying program.

However a very...

## JonExArmy and Escaping the Rabbit Hole

Jan
23
by Mick West at 1:30 PM
(2,515 Views / 19 Likes)

Jon is a YouTube conspiracy theorist with a fairly sizable following of 220,000 followers. He's been putting out a lot of videos about prepping for an imminent global catastrophe. He recently came across Metabunk while researching the Deagle claims, and then contacted me and asked if I'd like to be on his show.

I agreed, and mentioned my book, Escaping the Rabbit hole. Jon immediately ordered a copy of the ebook and read most of it before the show. He really liked it, describing it as a "jewel," and "a valuable tool for the conspiracy theory community", even giving it a five-star review on Amazon:

Jon's embrace of my book (and simply having me on his...

## Angels in a Snowstorm on Mt Athos - Bokeh?

Jan
09
by Mick West at 2:36 PM
(3,344 Views / 2 Likes)

This image has been around for years and keeps getting repeated in collections of "unexplained" photos. But what is it?

It shows a group of five people standing on a snow-covered road. It's snowing. There are various white cross-shaped lights visible that look like this:

There's a variety of versions of this photo, including this one of it being displayed in a picture frame:

And someone holding the image:

What looks like a photo of a photo:

And some lower resolution images that seem designed to look more "authentic"

There are various different stories behind this image, example:

## Ground Truth: Verifying Stellarium's Model of The Solar System

Dec
20
by Mick West at 9:53 AM
(5,189 Views / 5 Likes)
ground truth, n.
1. A fundamental truth. Also: the real or underlying facts; information that has been checked or facts that have been collected at source.
2. a. In remote sensing: information obtained by direct measurement at ground level, rather than by interpretation of remotely obtained data (as aerial or satellite images, etc.), esp. as used to verify or calibrate remotely obtained data.
2. b. Information obtained by direct observation of a real system, as opposed to a model or simulation; a set of data that is considered to be accurate and reliable, and is used to calibrate a model, algorithm, procedure, etc.

The modern scientist's understanding of the universe is built largely on trust. They trust that the reference books and the scientific literature are largely correct. They trust that the mathematical models of gravity,...

## Trees Burnt Down to the Roots in Widfires [Old Stumps]

Dec
13
(2,364 Views / 1 Likes)

Source: https://youtu.be/afqU-kGekgM

In a video on Facebook, some people who seem to suspect the wildfire in Paradise was made with lasers are stumped by a hole in the ground. They can't understand why some trees seem to have burnt all the way down to the roots, leaving just a hole.

"What happened here" is not an unreasonable question, especially for city folk who might not be familiar with tree stumps, or burning wood. So I set out to investigate.

Firstly I found the location of the house in the video (Hillpark Lane), and the...

## UFOs Filmed from Helicopters. Not So Fast!

Dec
11
by Mick West at 3:54 PM
(2,135 Views / 3 Likes)

There are a few UFO videos that are shot from a moving helicopter (or plane) where the camera tracks what seems to be a fast moving object. The best demonstration of this effect now comes from Tom Churchill of Churchill Navigation with this video of a mylar balloon filmed from a helicopter. After the cameraman starts tracking the balloon it looks like it's moving incredibly fast over the background, but we can see it's just a balloon drifting in the wind, and the apparent motion comes from a combination of the helicopter motion, and the magnified movement due to the zoom factor.

With just a little math we can find out where the balloon is relative to the helicopter, and discover that it's not actually moving very fast at all! Thanks to Churchill Navigation for permission to use this video! The original is here:...

## Explained: Unexplained Green Light During Thunderstorm

Dec
08
by Mick West at 3:29 PM
(1,778 Views / 1 Likes)

@ufoofinterest pointed out this particular "UFO" resembled the water-drop-on-lens caustics seen here:
https://www.metabunk.org/explained-...‘critters’-water-on-lens-caustic-bokeh.t5211/

But those looked bigger and generally more round. I realized that the difference was that the older images were a conventional camera with a 2" wide filter over the lens. Here we just have a phone camera. So it needed a tiny drop of water, and the effect was a bit different:

A shape hovering over the distant light:

Like the "UFO"

## White Hot: The Accuracy of Color Temperature

Dec
07
by Mick West at 8:46 AM
(1,470 Views / 1 Likes)