The other reason I had suspected dissolved water to play a significant role in refraction was due to the cloud-edge effect - I've noticed when I'm standing outside on a partly cloudy day, often times just as a cloud edge nears the path between me and the sun, I will feel an intense increase in the warmth of the sun for just a brief moment before the cloud shades me. There seem to be 3 camps of people on that topic - those who say the cloud edge effect is not real, those who say it's refraction, and those who say it's just the additional lumens from the bright cloud up there nearby.The simplest answer to what's happening here is that it's hidden behind an inferior mirage because the water is warming the air just above it.
I'm leaning towards refraction because the effect is so sudden, so intense, and so and short lived: If it was just the brilliance of approaching clouds, the effect would gradually increase as the cloud approached with the sine of the angle or something, but that has not been my experience. This effect is also recorded on solar panel power systems.
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