How does a sundial work in the standard FE model?

**JMartJr** linked a video by Jos Leys "Debunking flat Earth using only a stick" (see

https://www.metabunk.org/threads/co...metric-point-of-view.12591/page-2#post-280310). There, Leys proposes a simple experiment to solve the matter, although he is certain of the outcome: Nothing but circles!

Surely Leys' simple test is enough to debunk the FE model. Last summer, however, I made a more accurate sundial model for the flat Earth. I can't resist telling you about it. Maybe it's a fun craft.

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First I modeled a sundial for the southern hemisphere. As the installation location I chose point A (coordinates -70,-65) on the Antarctic Peninsula (picture 1). The map shows also the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. In the FE model, the Sun at an altitude of 5000 km moves along the Tropic of Cancer at the summer solstice on June 21. and along the Tropic of Capricorn at the winter solstice on 21.12.

What kind of shadow would the stick at point A (blue arrow in pictures 2 and 3) cast? The shadow of light travelling in a circle is also a circle on a parallel plane. So we can conclude that the circular paths of the Sun at the solstices appear on the flat plane as circles drawn by the shadow of the tip of a stick. The circles have the same center, and the ratio of the radii remains the same regardless of the length of the stick. The length of the stick determines the size of the circles.

The sundial must be made separately for each latitude (just like on the Globe). For this, you need to calculate the distance of the installation place from the North Pole (marked with the letter d). You can do it with a formula d = ((90-φ)/360)*40008, where φ is the latitude of the installation site. For example, the distance of point A from the North Pole is 17781 km (see picture 2).

Now we have the necessary information from the FE model:

– Height of the Sun 5000 km (constant)

– Radius of the Tropic of Cancer 7406 km (constant)

– Radius of the Tropic of Capricorn 12610 km (constant)

– The distance of the installation site from the North Pole 17781 km (calculated)

The dial with the stick is similar with the pattern on the map (mirror image). The sundial thus has the same ratios as the FE reality. The height of the sun corresponds to the length of the stick. If we scale the dimensions of the sundial so that the length of the stick is 100 cm, the radius of the small circle (Tropic of Cancer) is 148 cm, and the radius of the larger circle (Tropic of Capricorn) is 252 cm. The distance of the stick from the center of the circles is 356 cm and it must be measured in the north direction. (Figure 2 is calculated using similarity.)

Picture 3 shows the finished sundial set up at location A. The length of the blue arrow (the gnomon) is proportional to the size of the circles.

The hour scale on the dial is evenly spaced. This follows from the fact that the Sun's orbital speed during one day can be considered constant. During the year, the orbital speed does change, but the angular speed remains the same (it is always 360 degrees in a year).

The hour readings increase clockwise, because the FE Sun also rotates clockwise (viewed from above). This is happening everywhere on the flat Earth. (On spherical Earth, the hour readings increase clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the southern hemisphere.)

A couple of examples of reading the sundial:

- At the winter solstice, the tip of the shadow follows the outer circle. The tip of the arrow (a) hits the 17 hour position. At approximately 13:40, the direction of the arrow is the same, but the arrow is shorter. Thus, the direction of the shadow does not alone determine the time. The length of the shadow is also needed. So the most important thing is the location of the tip of the shadow.

- At the summer solstice, the tip of the shadow follows the inner circle. The tip of the arrow (c ) hits the 3 hour position. At approximately 10:45, the direction of the arrow is again the same, but the arrow is shorter.

So the FE sundial seems to work just fine in solstice days. Are separate circles needed for other times between these circles? In Figure 3, the tip of the arrow (b) hits a circle that is not marked on the dial (dashed line). Still, it works in this case too. You just have to estimate the time on the dial. It seems to be approximately 14:30.

The sundial takes care of the season by expanding and shrinking the circle automatically. You can roughly estimate the current month from this circle. From the arrow (b), you could estimate that the summer solstice is about a month and a half away – ahead or behind.

Short practical instructions to set up the FE sundial:

1) Using the latitude of the setup site, calculate the length d (formula in figure 2)

2) Divide the number you get by 50. This way you get the distance of the stick from the center of the circles to the same scale, where the length of the stick is 100 cm and the radii of the circles are 148 cm and 252 cm.

For example, in Melbourne (latitude -37.8) we get d = 14203. This is 284 divided by 50. Now you can draw two concentric circles with radii of 148 cm and 252 cm on flat plane. Then measure 284 cm directly north from the center of the circles and set up a 100 cm stick on it. The sundial is ready.

If your FE friend in Australia thinks this sundial is too large for his backyard, he can easily reduce its size. If your friend has some stylish stick with a length of e.g. 43 cm, he can use it. The other dimensions just need to be shortened in the same ratio, i.e. by multiplying by the number 0.43. In this case, the radii of the circles are 64 cm and 108 cm, and the distance of the stick from the center is 122 cm.

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If you find the whole project idiotic and my long explanations extremely boring, I can't blame you. Did I even build the FE sundial myself? Yes, I did.