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  1. deirdre

    deirdre Moderator Staff Member

    Oroville thread links:
    ---main thread-----------------
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-15#post-200495

    --waterfall erosion (main spillway)
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-main-spillway-waterfall-erosion-watch.t8402/

    --current weather, lake levels etc
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-w...el-and-inflow-calculations.t8406/#post-200737

    --spillway wall drain system
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-drains-in-the-spillway-walls-how-do-they-work.t8407/


    Event Timeline:
    Feb 7 hole forms in spillway
    Feb 11 water breaches emergency spillway
    Feb 12 evacuation ordered and main spillway turned on (100,000 cfs)
    Feb 14 evacuation reduced to evacuation warning


    -----------------------------------------------
    Memorandum report March 17 FERC
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-38#post-203671




    FROM MAIN THREAD:
    ------------------------------------------------------
    DWR photos
    http://pixel-ca-dwr.photoshelter.co...yfg/G00003YCcmDTx48Y/Oroville-Spillway-Damage

    There are multiple galleries on the left, the above pic is from the Dedication 1968 gallery.
    http://pixel-ca-dwr.photoshelter.com/galleries/C0000OxvlgXg3yfg/G0000_XF0AkosxZI/Dedication-1968

    DWR Twitter
    https://twitter.com/CA_DWR/media

    The Lake Oroville web cam gives a live look at the level of the lake:
    https://www.parks.ca.gov/?page_id=29411

    Links to some Dam inspection reports (down left side of article)
    http://www.chicoer.com/article/NA/20170210/NEWS/170219971

    Dam original blueprints etc
    https://archive.org/stream/zh9californiastatew2003calirich#page/96/mode/2up
    or
    https://ia800302.us.archive.org/3/i...lirich/zh9californiastatew2003calirich_bw.pdf

    Blueprints top of spillway
    https://archive.org/stream/august11975orovi20378cali#page/292/mode/2up

    Early models of spillways, erosion testing, hydraulic models etc
    https://www.usbr.gov/tsc/techreferences/hydraulics_lab/pubs/HYD/HYD-510.pdf
    https://www.usbr.gov/tsc/techreferences/hydraulics_lab/pubs/HYD/HYD-507.pdf
    https://www.usbr.gov/tsc/techreferences/hydraulics_lab/pubs/HYD/HYD-508.pdf
    https://www.usbr.gov/tsc/techreferences/hydraulics_lab/pubs/HYD/HYD-502.pdf


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2017_Oroville_Dam_crisis

    Some folks interested in sublimation and snowmelt may find interest in this NOAA site.
    http://www.nohrsc.noaa.gov/interact...2017&em=2&ed=19&eh=6&data=0&units=0&region=us

    a VERY general Dam Maintence pdf (oklahoma) guide, erosion etc for laymen
    https://www.owrb.ok.gov/hazard/dam/pdf_dam/DamMaintenanceGuidelines.pdf
    ---------------------------------------------------------



    ---------------------------------------------------------
    Page 1 (February 8)

    Real-time data here:
    http://cdec.water.ca.gov/cgi-progs/queryF?s=ORO

    Long range forecast models are showing another round of significant storms starting next Thursday with 2 possible 3 more AR [Atmospheric River] events training into CA.
    http://weather.rap.ucar.edu/model/displayMod.php?var=gfs_sfc_prcp&loop=loopall&hours=

    -------------------------------------------------------------

    Page 2 (weir calculations)

    The edges of these puddles will give a good indication of the changes in the lake level.

    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RpTSUHDM2JQ



    http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/weirs/discharge.php

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    Page 3 (February 11)
    Drone footage February 11

    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bephol1Ormg


    History and historical photos of Oroville dam
    http://www.petersoncat.com/history/oroville-dam

    Very interesting lawsuit from 2005 arguing for the need for the emergency (auxiliary) spillway to have a lined chute:
    https://elibrary.ferc.gov/idmws/com...).pdf&folder=19973004&fileid=10849040&trial=1

    aerial footage 2/11

    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bCK1FSKfPwU


    More on why the generators are shut off
    http://www.krcrtv.com/news/breaking-news/dwr-holds-press-conference-about-oroville-dam/327843952


    ------------------------------------------------------------
    Page 4 (february 12)

    start of evacuation order
    https://www.facebook.com/bcsonews/posts/781255845358029
    http://www.sacbee.com/news/state/california/water-and-drought/article132332499.html


    *DWR increasing main spillway to 100,000 cfs

    Parking lot was flooded last night, the problem is the erosion below the weir:
    Live pic from a few minutes ago:
    http://www.krcrtv.com/krcr-news-channel-7-live-stream


    *start of bags of rock work/helicopters

    -------------------------------------------------------------
    Page 5

    Geology of Oroville
    https://www.geocaching.com/geocache/GC1BZ9C_table-mountain-basalt
    https://archive.org/stream/geologyoforovill00creerich/geologyoforovill00creerich_djvu.txt

    *first talk of possibility of weir failing/ "boil" spotted

    ----------------------------------------------------------

    page 6 (February 13)

    geological data
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-6#post-199975


    "The accelerographs are located on the dam, which is located on rocks of the upper Paleozoic 'Bedrock Series'; dense and usually massive metavolcanic schists. The maximum thickness for these rocks in this area is 1500m."
    https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1978/1005/report.pdf

    One of the references describes the Bedrock Series on page 77, but without details of the dam site.
    https://archive.org/details/geologyoforovill00creerich



    "I found a map in this report (which you may have all already seen) with the various levee tolerances. (Fig 4 of report)."
    http://frrfmp.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/FRFMPDraft5.14.13.pdf

    Graphic of state flood plan
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-6#post-200014

    -----------------------------------------------------------

    Page 7

    re: possible erosion
    For comparison, one of the fastest moving waterfalls is Niagara Falls, which is 187 feet high and has moved seven miles in 12,500 years (3 feet per year).
    https://www.niagaraparks.com/about-niagara-falls/geology-facts-figures.html


    I think by "boil" they just mean a pocket of high energy water where it's hitting an obstruction and bouncing around, like in a whitewater situation.
    http://www.pinnacle-travel.org/whitewater-rafting-glossary/
    http://www.russellfork.info/descrgorge.htm


    --------------------------------------------------------
    Page 8
    --------------------------------------------------------
    Page 9
    **helicopter etc con't to repair emergency spillway

    There's an "Army Corps of Engineers Oroville Dam Reservoir Regulation Manual" mentioned here:
    https://elibrary.ferc.gov/idmws/com...).pdf&folder=19973004&fileid=10849040&trial=1
    But I have been unable to find a copy.



    A lot of the original design specification, blueprints, and operating rules are here
    http://www.water.ca.gov/orovillerelicensing/docs/FEIR_080722/AppendixA/Extracted_Comments/C0005_SutterCty_YubaCity_Levee Dst1_Appendices_Pages_10-177.pdf


    *weir data linked, csf specs linked
    ------------------
    **2005 relicensing debate
    But in this FERC filing, note the text that is missing from the above.
    https://elibrary.ferc.gov/idmws/com...).pdf&folder=19973004&fileid=10849040&trial=1

    Interesting difference in quotes here: (re: FERC relicensing suit)
    http://yubariver.org/wp-content/upl...g_Oroville-auxiliary-spillway-major-risks.pdf



    “It is important to recognize that during a rare event with the emergency spillway flowing at its design capacity, spillway operations would not affect reservoir control or endanger the dam,” wrote John Onderdonk, a senior civil engineer with FERC, in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s San Francisco Office, in a July 27, 2006, memo to his managers.
    “The emergency spillway meets FERC’s engineering guidelines for an emergency spillway,” he added. “The guidelines specify that during a rare flood event, it is acceptable for the emergency spillway to sustain significant damage.”
    http://www.mercurynews.com/2017/02/...tate-officials-ignored-warnings-12-years-ago/
    ------------------

    ----------------------------------------------------------
    Page 10

    shasta talk

    pics of erosion
    feb 10th-feb13th comparison shots
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-10#post-200207

    *geology chat
    http://www.water.ca.gov/orovillerelicensing/docs/DEIR_070521/06 Ch 04 Env Setting Part 1.pdf

    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1sR9vuBYp4



    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_5udzKfLQM


    -----------------------------------------------------------
    Page 11

    *quad d9

    This Says the valves were rated at 2,400 CFS max (but should have been lower for safety). It's not clear if that is per valve. There were six valves.
    https://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/citations/CA Water Resources 313228637Summary.pdf

    2/14 repair work from neighbor

    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ux9MSHoVL2g


    -----------------------------------------------------------
    page 12 (February 14)

    drone video february 13th

    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBP-4ah3U6s


    Yesterday's KCRA livestream of the damage and the rocks drops is archive on Facebook. Nothing new really, but a good set of overview shots.
    https://www.facebook.com/KCRA3/videos/10155029133956514/?permPage=1

    *Yuba city flood data


    video people walking in spillway

    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XZO_744b_Gs


    -------------------------------------------------------------
    page 14


    specs on another spillway that failed due to drains
    http://www.rjh-consultants.com/site...e_Spillway-Catastrophic_Failure_Prevented.pdf


    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahOEdiYj8z8#t=18m0s



    --------------------------------------------------------------
    page 15 (February 15)

    Ralph, I don't believe the venturi effect is a good analogy for the current situation (nor is it for an airplane wing...see NASA explanation here https://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/bernnew.html)



    A few comments from an ex-geologist and poli sci person, now retired from both, who has been following this since the beginning (thanks, Mick for this site!) .
    The press didn't pick up on it, but in one of the press conferences (I believe it was the very 'upbeat' one shortly before the declaration of emergency) Acting Director Croyle said 'the purpose of the emergency spillway is to save the dam'. It was never intended to be a secondary source of water release with the first spillway damaged.
    From a geology point of view, as I look at the various photos and such, it seems clear they sited the dam proper and the main spillway on the best bedrock they could. I imagine they put the emergency spillway in the best spot they could given the geology, but I'm not surprised the rock there is less competent than what's under the main spillway
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-15#post-200455




    Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5DUA46Xm-Jk



    https://www.ferc.gov/industries/hydropower/safety/guidelines/fema-94.pdf

    *DWR using both 'emergency' and 'auxilliary' to describe weir/emergency spillway


    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pber.html#bcal

    -----------------------------------------------------------
    Page 16

    https://youtu.be/E0Rzi8kELM4


    Could this be the trigger for the lower portion of main spillway crumbling?
    http://www.johnmartin.com/earthquakes/eqpapers/00000052.htm


    http://www.water.ca.gov/orovillerel...baCity_Levee Dst1_Appendices_Pages_10-177.pdf
    (Page 107, "Oroville Spillway and Flood Control Outlet Rating Curves" 1963)

    ------------------------------------------------------
    Page 17

    It appears that there's no flow through the generators. https://cdec.water.ca.gov/cgi-progs/queryF?ORO is showing 99.9kCFS outflow, and 117.6 river release, how's that possible?


    *parkinglot weir chat and "sacrificial plug" theory chat



    "In part of the emergency spillway, an additional 10 feet of excavation was required to reach acceptable foundation rock, resulting in considerable additional time for excavation and placement of the backfill concrete to subgrade"
    Page 133 of https://ia800302.us.archive.org/3/i...lirich/zh9californiastatew2003calirich_bw.pdf


    The "weir" there is about 1' high, a bit of road going over one bit of it isn't going to do anything.
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-17#post-200630


    Beck, J. L. "Weight-induced stresses and the recent seismicity at Lake Oroville, California." Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 66.4 (1976): 1121-1131.

    -----------------------------------------------------------
    page 18

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y00wUYTuD4s


    pics of other emergency spillway to dam examples
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-18#post-200690

    Looking at https://archive.org/details/zh9californiastatew2003calirich and judging from the general plan (Pg 94/92):


    Also, here's the parking lot weir section
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-18#post-200698

    Go to http://www.historicaerials.com/ and search for Oroville dam. Look at the 1973 topo or newer to orient yourself and then drop to 1966 and earlier.


    -----------------------------------------------------------
    Page 19 (February 16)

    You might 'enjoy' reading this discussion of the St. Francis Dam failure. It touches on geology, dam physics, hydraulic forces, etc.
    http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/st_francis_dam/reassessment_of_st_francis_dam_failure.pdf
    And other articles at http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/st_francis_dam/


    Interesting current standard practices:
    https://policy.nrcs.usda.gov/OpenNonWebContent.aspx?content=32418.wba

    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-19#post-200765


    Video of the Area around the parking lot while the weir was beng overtopped
    https://www.facebook.com/cecilejuliette/videos/1278569305556763/


    If anyone outside California wants a quick visual primer on the geology here is a University of California public lecture that covers a lot of history and possible future scenarios for California plate tectonics. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DcSma09I08A&t=1693s


    It's from here.
    https://mng-chico.smugmug.com/Oroville-Week-of-5-9-2016/i-FJMxJTc/A


    Historic USGS topographic map
    https://ngmdb.usgs.gov/img4/ht_icons/Browse/CA/CA_Bidwell Bar_288362_1950_24000.jpg
    https://ngmdb.usgs.gov/img4/ht_icons/Browse/CA/CA_Oroville Dam_293795_1970_24000.jpg

    --------------------------------------------------------------
    page 20

    A relief well discharge pipe perhaps?
    The possible explanation is around the 28:00 minute mark.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AhpMyq4ZV2k








    Those were both emergency spillways in addition to the normal spillways
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Don_Pedro_Dam
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-20#post-200868

    -----------------------------------------------------------
    Page 21

    https://archive.org/stream/august11975orovi20378cali#page/292/mode/2up
    Found a blueprint of the top of the spillway. It shows the starting monolith#20 of the emergency dam and also the approach wall you are talking about in the photo.


    Regarding the discussion in previous posts about venturi effects contributing to the cause of the service spillway failure, a Google search using the words "spillway floor slab jacking Reclamation" returns this link:
    https://www.usbr.gov/ssle/damsafety/risk/BestPractices/Chapters/VI-1-20150610.pdf
    Reference 3 in this link: "Bureau of Reclamation, Uplift and Crack Flow Resulting from High Velocity Discharges over Open Offset Joints, Report DSO-07-07, Technical Service Center, Denver CO, December 2007" provides derivation of equations based on venturi principles, predictions using the equations, and results from large-scale laboratory experiments that verify the predictions. Modern construction has rubber or copper "water stops" incorporated in all joints between floor slabs, which should prevent this from happening, but the water stops can fail if the offset is too great.


    Because it's the bottom of the intake cut that matters, at 813.6 feet.
    https://archive.org/stream/august11975orovi20378cali#page/292/mode/2up
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-21#post-200957


    ----------------------
    More on concrete slab control joints from the American Concrete Paving Association.
    http://www.acpa.org/wp-content/uplo...oint-Design-and-Construction-FINAL-100214.pdf

    A concrete slab WILL crack as it cures, no matter the reinforcing within. The trick is to control the cracking to locations that are planned, and design for load transfer between the now independent slabs with dowel bars.
    https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/concrete/pubs/07021/07021.pdf

    These joints are sealed to retard water infiltration, and is a continuous maintenance issue on concrete paved highways.
    http://wikipave.org/index.php?title=Joint_Sealing



    ----------------------

    Re the drainage under the concrete spillway and the weir, I ran across the following (cross posted in the spillway erosion thread ):
    Pages 133/134 of https://ia800302.us.archive.org/3/i...lirich/zh9californiastatew2003calirich_bw.pdf




    pg 146 of 546 is an overall plan drawing of the spillway with contours. pg 148 is an elevation with typical sections. Haven't found any drawings detailing the drainage system yet.
    https://ia800302.us.archive.org/3/i...lirich/zh9californiastatew2003calirich_bw.pdf

    ---------------------------------------------------------
    Page 22

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NJYyUKb0mA

    post #847
    Cavitation is easy to analyze and relatively cheap to fix. The responsible CA DWR engineers or administrators should be [fired] if they cannot produce a spillway cavitation analysis or proof that they added some aeration to the flow as it is well-studied and well known problem. We could ballpark a cavitation analysis.
    https://www.usbr.gov/ssle/damsafety/risk/BestPractices/Chapters/VI-3-20150610.pdf


    Detail of the e-spillway drain from https://archive.org/stream/zh9californiastatew2003calirich#page/96/mode/2up


    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j8DYb_3XPF4


    From the spillway design description, from page 100 of https://archive.org/stream/zh9californiastatew2003calirich
    -------------------------------------------------
    Page 23 (February 17)
    new flow ravine forming near bottom of spillway

    ---------------------------------------------------
    Page 24

    core samples (post #929)

    Document page 94 (pg 146 of 546 in the .pdf)
    https://ia800302.us.archive.org/3/i...3calirich/zh9californiastatew2003calirich.pdf
    post #932 bunch of close up detail shots of slabs (spillway collapsed)


    https://archive.org/stream/august11975orovi20378cali#page/292/mode/2up
    Don't know if this is the start of the underground pipe system but since it's at the spillway gate floor it might be (Pg282)



    big pipes debunk post #954

    ---------------------------------------------------

    Page 25 (February 18)

    Here is an interesting 3d dwg of the area.
    https://sketchfab.com/models/a2e069b5196945b79d9487c2730cbcac


    http://www.water.ca.gov/orovillerelicensing/docs/app_ferc_license_2005/Vol_IV_App B_Project Description.pdf
    Pg 18 routine mainenance


    -------------------------------------------------
    Page 26 (February 18th)

    https://www.usbr.gov/tsc/techreferences/hydraulics_lab/pubs/HYD/HYD-507.pdf
    https://www.usbr.gov/tsc/techreferences/hydraulics_lab/pubs/HYD/HYD-508.pdf
    https://www.usbr.gov/tsc/techreferences/hydraulics_lab/pubs/HYD/HYD-502.pdf


    https://archive.org/stream/zh9californiastatew2003calirich#page/96/mode/2up
    Pg 96 Here is a blueprint of the emerg. spillway. I don't know if this is already posted but I thought I would post. Please delete if already posted previously.


    American Concrete Institute paper on concrete failure due to cavitation. Includes photos and examples of dam spillways. This link is to the downloadable PDF file
    https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&sou...gguMAQ&usg=AFQjCNFadpI0GTvOG7vK7vxt_pAChZrS1g


    California State Flood Plan
    http://www.water.ca.gov/cvfmp/docs/DRAFT_SPFC_Descriptive_Doc_20100115.pdf


    Lake level last 2 years (chart)
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-26#post-201368



    Current update 2/18/17 16:00 PST:
    Level: 854.07 (drop of 48.51 feet from peak)
    Acre feet in reservoir: 2,863,316
    Inflow: 38,343
    Outflow: 54,987 (They have now reduced outflow to 55,000 cfs)
    Reservoir Capacity: 3,573,577
    Current available storage: 711,261 Acre feet
    http://cdec.water.ca.gov/cgi-progs/queryF?s=ORO&d=18-Feb-2017+16:15&span=150hours


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    page 27

    reservoir levels since 1995 (chart)
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-27#post-201393


    geologic survey decade before dam built
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-27#post-201406

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    page 28 (February 18)

    chat about repair work

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    page 29 (February 19)

    explanation of workers fired for posting pics to social media
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-29#post-201521


    There's also a mention in one of the documents that the last edit[300' 30'] section of the ogee weir is variable in height and width. The first section closest to the spillway is solid and massive, but the second section further out is obviously tapered to shorter/narrower sections until it ends at the parking lot weir. edit: [Sorry - I'll try to find a reference. California State Water Project Vol. III Storage Facilities Bulletin 200 November 1974 Fig. 79 Pg. 97]


    more geology chat

    From the 1974 Storage Facilities report, page 67:


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Page 30

    Flooding in California is a ongoing interest for many, the FLood Plain Management Assoc., for example. http://www.floodplain.org/sacramento


    They did use the right term, however the word "boil" has multiple meanings. Consider one of the original Oroville dam studies
    https://www.usbr.gov/tsc/techreferences/hydraulics_lab/pubs/HYD/HYD-510.pdf
    PDF Page 48-49, Document page 37
    https://www.metabunk.org/oroville-dam-spillway-failure.t8381/page-30#post-201617


    FERC scan of orders to DWR to hie Board of independant contractors
    https://www.ferc.gov/media/statements-speeches/lafleur/2017/P-2100-02-13-2017.pdf

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    page 31




    NOTE: Thank you to @David Larson for all your help gathering links.
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2017
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  2. deirdre

    deirdre Moderator Staff Member

    0afbd6b37c45b274fb9e6039c909f478. 3a8c9b708f694a40d4d47c05c8b330a7. 7d289151cf09e66eab74ab24d7cdeab6. 7bfb5f803e01e6e36c5d0cf583097f44. 6439c91eddf0be4edd2950162c3acba0. 712507c66ec63659d7f99dc928b8f638. 20170209-100707-jsefh. 20170209-150739-q8vaw. 20170211-184227-gf4gv. 20170213-084001-5uzyk. 20170213-085432-cyz5h. 20170213-105336-jxhe1. 20170213-105708-p3zsi. 20170213-171258-861kn. 20170213-224719-sp4sd. 20170214-143318-h8gqr. 20170214-143949-ikgb0. 20170214-145008-tvbut. 20170215-134546-54j9i. 20170215-170533-4uuxk. 20170215-170811-u0lt3. 20170215-174336-sqn59. 20170216-104502-f3p6q. 20170216-223056-unr7s. 20170216-224757-kbsha. 20170217-144510-br9mh. 20170217-230411-m80lm. b5ec4467c46199df34f650ce57172f7f. ba5203a6c7cedc2cbeae30a80a4d518d. c361d9d994de2b894c1bad8e4527d34f. General Plan E-Weir Area.JPG Ogee Weir. Oroville Dam Emergency Spillway Section. la-me-lake-oroville-spillway-pictures-039. oroville-why-no-collapse-metabunk. upload_2017-2-17_9-49-40. upload_2017-2-17_14-6-11. upload_2017-2-16_21-39-56. upload_2017-2-17_18-9-7. upload_2017-2-17_18-14-57. upload_2017-2-17_22-53-11. upload_2017-2-17_22-56-42. upload_2017-2-18_9-51-56. zh9californiastatew2003calirich_0152a. upload_2017-2-18_14-59-11.
     
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  3. deirdre

    deirdre Moderator Staff Member

    Useful photo grabs from thread page 25-30
    20170215_50overlay.

    ogee_c_c.

    transition_section.
     
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