ETC Group just publish this map of what they claim is geoengineering around the world for the past 50 years. http://www.etcgroup.org/content/world-geoengineering Full sized image: https://www.metabunk.org/files/geoEmap_v17_mock.jpeg Looks like a lot. However the map is very misleading. The majority of the points on the map are things that even the ETC group admits are not really geoengineering. Most of the remainder are things that are still in the very early theoretical, or research stages. Specifically: These are LOCAL manipulations. They just increase or decrease the precipitation (rain or snow) for a very short period of time, and in a limited area. They are not geoengineering, which is a manipulation of the climate, and not the weather. Even ETC agrees with this, on the same map! Note they also say the same about Biochar. Biochar could be considered geoengineering, as it locks in the carbon underground, so decreases the net amount of carbon in the atmosphere. However notice all those Biochar projects in Africa? Who knew African countries were so interested in Geoengineering? Well, they are not. The vast majority of biochar projects (which are all very small scale) are done because of the benefits to crop yields, and not for their carbon benefits. Two forms of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). But as they note, that's not considered geoengineering either. CCS is simply a way of reducing carbon emissions, usually from power stations. If reducing carbon emissions is geoengineering, then you'll want to include electric cars, and LED lightbulbs as well. The problem with this category is that these things do not exist, except as proposals, and some research projects. There is no commercial deployment of artificial trees or carbon suckers. And it's really just a less direct form of CCS. Again, none of these ideas has been deployed, or even got to the stage of field experiments. The closest thing to an artificial volcano that is out there is the SPICE project, which got to the stage of proposing a scale test of a balloon and hose system, which has not yet happened. The only thing that might fall into this category is the white roof initiative. But that's more of an energy saving proposal than geoengineering. These are things that are very much in the theoretical and small-stage experiment stage. The ETC group raises some very valid concerns about geoengineering. These concerns are largely shared by the scientists working in the field. There is a huge amount of uncertainty as to what will happen to the planet under any of the geoengineering proposals, if they are put into practice. That is why there is practically zero going on in the world that could be considered active geoengineering. It's all very much theoretical, and small scale experiments. Unfortunately this map gives the opposite impression. It makes it seem like geoengineering is a widespread activity that has being going on for 50 years. That impression is highly misleading, and will only serve to provide fodder to those who are motivated by fear and conspiracy theories. Now they have a map where they can say "Geoengineering finally admitted!" when the reality is nothing like the picture.