by Mick West at 2:46 PM
(5,195 Views / 3 Likes)


If there were no atmosphere, and somehow the Earth still had oceans, then the curvature of those oceans would be readily apparent, with a pin-sharp horizon cutting off distant objects with mathematical precision. You'd be able to zoom in clearly on ships vanishing over the horizon, and calculate the radius of the earth with great precision.

But back in the real world, we have an atmosphere. That atmosphere is generally denser as it gets lower down, and this makes the light bend down a bit, which lets you see beyond the mathematically calculated horizon.

This is normally illustrated with a side view, with the camera on one side and the target object on the other, and a greatly exaggerated curve of the Earth, like this:
Metabunk 2019-02-06 12-13-03.

This is where the explanation starts to get lost on people. This abstract side view is...
by Mick West at 11:39 AM
(68,961 Views / 4 Likes)
Boiling Water Freezing mid air Metabunk 2019-01-30 06-31-25.

Whenever there's really cold weather you see lots of accounts of people throwing hot water into the air, which creates a dramatic cloud. People often describe this as being so cold that boiling water freezes instantly. This description is inaccurate.

The water is not "freezing in mid air" as these videos so often describe. It's actually doing the opposite - it's evaporating into water vapor. This then very quickly condenses in the cold air as a cloud of visible "steam" (micro-droplets of water) which then very quickly freezes into a dust cloud of tiny ice crystals, because they are so small. The actual boiling water does not freeze instantly, and in most of the videos you can see and hear it splattering on the ground (or sometimes, with screams, on the person throwing.

What is going on is the surface area is vastly...
by Mick West at 8:09 AM
(15,972 Views / 3 Likes)
Chemical Test for Metals Like Aluminum Metabunk.

Believers in the "chemtrail" theory (the theory that the trails behind high-flying aircraft secretly contain chemicals intended to alter the climate or weather) often point to chemical analyses done on soil, air or water. Typically these tests are done for three metals: Aluminum, Barium, and Strontium (the fallacious "geoengineering signature"). Since these elements are all naturally found in the Earth's crust, they usually find some of each. Experts in geochemistry recently analyzed a typical set of these results, and determined they did not come from a secret spraying program.

However a very...
by Mick West at 1:30 PM
(6,008 Views / 20 Likes)


Jon is a YouTube conspiracy theorist with a fairly sizable following of 220,000 followers. He's been putting out a lot of videos about prepping for an imminent global catastrophe. He recently came across Metabunk while researching the Deagle claims, and then contacted me and asked if I'd like to be on his show.

I agreed, and mentioned my book, Escaping the Rabbit hole. Jon immediately ordered a copy of the ebook and read most of it before the show. He really liked it, describing it as a "jewel," and "a valuable tool for the conspiracy theory community", even giving it a five-star review on Amazon:

Metabunk 2019-01-23 13-40-15.

Jon's embrace of my book (and simply having me on his...
by Mick West at 2:36 PM
(5,500 Views / 2 Likes)
Snow Angels.


This image has been around for years and keeps getting repeated in collections of "unexplained" photos. But what is it?

It shows a group of five people standing on a snow-covered road. It's snowing. There are various white cross-shaped lights visible that look like this:
Metabunk 2019-01-09 13-11-59.

There's a variety of versions of this photo, including this one of it being displayed in a picture frame:

And someone holding the image:


What looks like a photo of a photo:

ingeri pe muntele athos.

And some lower resolution images that seem designed to look more "authentic"

There are various different stories behind this image, example:
by Mick West at 9:53 AM
(6,295 Views / 5 Likes)
ground truth, n.
1. A fundamental truth. Also: the real or underlying facts; information that has been checked or facts that have been collected at source.
2. a. In remote sensing: information obtained by direct measurement at ground level, rather than by interpretation of remotely obtained data (as aerial or satellite images, etc.), esp. as used to verify or calibrate remotely obtained data.
2. b. Information obtained by direct observation of a real system, as opposed to a model or simulation; a set of data that is considered to be accurate and reliable, and is used to calibrate a model, algorithm, procedure, etc.

The modern scientist's understanding of the universe is built largely on trust. They trust that the reference books and the scientific literature are largely correct. They trust that the mathematical models of gravity,...
by Mick West at 10:47 AM
(3,557 Views / 1 Likes)


In a video on Facebook, some people who seem to suspect the wildfire in Paradise was made with lasers are stumped by a hole in the ground. They can't understand why some trees seem to have burnt all the way down to the roots, leaving just a hole.

"What happened here" is not an unreasonable question, especially for city folk who might not be familiar with tree stumps, or burning wood. So I set out to investigate.

Firstly I found the location of the house in the video (Hillpark Lane), and the...
by Mick West at 3:54 PM
(3,103 Views / 3 Likes)


There are a few UFO videos that are shot from a moving helicopter (or plane) where the camera tracks what seems to be a fast moving object. The best demonstration of this effect now comes from Tom Churchill of Churchill Navigation with this video of a mylar balloon filmed from a helicopter. After the cameraman starts tracking the balloon it looks like it's moving incredibly fast over the background, but we can see it's just a balloon drifting in the wind, and the apparent motion comes from a combination of the helicopter motion, and the magnified movement due to the zoom factor.

With just a little math we can find out where the balloon is relative to the helicopter, and discover that it's not actually moving very fast at all! Thanks to Churchill Navigation for permission to use this video! The original is here:...
by Mick West at 3:29 PM
(2,577 Views / 1 Likes)


@ufoofinterest pointed out this particular "UFO" resembled the water-drop-on-lens caustics seen here:‘critters’-water-on-lens-caustic-bokeh.t5211/


But those looked bigger and generally more round. I realized that the difference was that the older images were a conventional camera with a 2" wide filter over the lens. Here we just have a phone camera. So it needed a tiny drop of water, and the effect was a bit different:

Metabunk 2018-12-08 15-26-17.

A shape hovering over the distant light:
Metabunk 2018-12-08 15-27-01.

Like the "UFO"
Metabunk 2018-12-08 15-28-40.
by Mick West at 8:46 AM
(2,391 Views / 1 Likes)


Something that occasionally comes up in various conspiracy theories is an attempt to determine temperature from the color something appears in an image or video. This is based on very reasonable science in that the color of light that something like a piece of steel (or really any metal) emits has a very specific correlation to its temperature.

However, as I demonstrate in the above video, this only works well to the naked eye and tends to go wrong in videos or images unless a lot of care is used in the exposure. Since cameras (and cameramen) generally set the exposure for the overall scene then this leads to smaller hot regions of the image being greatly overexposed. Hence they appear a lot hotter than they actually are.

Metabunk 2018-12-07 13-16-46.

Here's a more focused version of the above video, that contains a direct comparison...